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Publications

Faculty, staff, and students at the Spine Research Institute have been publishing research breakthroughs since 1982.  Together, they have published over 200 peer-reviewed journal articles, which have accumulated over 11,000 citations.  They have also written and edited a number of books and book chapters, hold 3 patents, and have published hundreds of conference proceedings.

Timeline showing history of journal article publications at the Spine Research Institute

1980 - 1990 - 2000 - 2010 - Present

 

2017

A review of methods to assess coactivation in the spine
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, Volume 32, 2017, Pages 51-60
Peter Le, Thomas M. Best, Safdar N. Khan, Ehud Mendel, William S. Marras

Curved muscles in biomechanical models of the spine:  A systematic literature review
Ergonomics, Volume 60, Issue 4, 2017, Pages 577-588
Jaejin Hwang, Gregory G. Knapik, Jonathan S. Dufour, William S. Marras

A biomechanical and physiological study of office seat and tablet device interaction
Applied Ergonomics, Volume 62, 2017, Pages 83-93
Eric B. Weston, Peter Le, William S. Marras

An EMG-driven biomechanical model of the canine cervical spine
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, Volume 32, 2017, Pages 101-109
Mina Alizadeh, Gregory G. Knapik, Jonathan S. Dufour, Claudia Zindl, Matthew J. Allen,  Judith Bertran, Noel Fitzpatrick, William S. Marras

Validation of a personalized curved muscle model of the lumbar spine during complex dynamic exertions
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, Volume 33, 2017, Pages 1-9
Jaejin Hwang, Gregory G. Knapik, Jonathan S. Dufour, Thomas M. Best, Safdar N. Khan, Ehud Mendel, William S. Marras

2016

MRI cross sectional atlas of normal canine cervical musculoskeletal structure
Research in Veterinary Science, Volume 109, 2016, Pages 94-100
Mina Alizadeh, Claudia Zindl, Matthew J. Allen, Gregory G. Knapik, Noel Fitzpatrick, William S. Marras

A biologically-assisted curved muscle model of the lumbar spine:  Model structure
Clinical Biomechanics, Volume 37, 2016, Pages 53-59
Jaejin Hwang, Gregory G. Knapik, Jonathan S. Dufour, Alexander Aurand, Thomas M. Best, Safdar N. Khan, Ehud Mendel, William S. Marras

A biologically-assisted curved muscle model of the lumbar spine:  Model validation
Clinical Biomechanics, Volume 37, 2016, Pages 153-159
Jaejin Hwang, Gregory G. Knapik, Jonathan S. Dufour, Thomas M. Best, Safdar N. Khan, Ehud Mendel, William S. Marras

Prediction of magnetic resonance imaging-derived trunk muscle geometry with application to spine biomechanical modeling
Clinical Biomechanics, Volume 37, 2016, Pages 60-64
Jaejin Hwang, Jonathan S. Dufour, Gregory G. Knapik, Thomas M. Best, Safdar N. Khan, Ehud Mendel, William S. Marras

Evaluating the low back biomechanics of three different office
workstations: Seated, standing, and perching

Applied Ergonomics, Volume 56, 2016, Pages 170-178
Peter Le, William S. Marras

2015

Weight knowledge and weight magnitude:  Impact on lumbosacral loading
Ergonomics, Volume 58, Issue 2, 2015, Pages 227-234
Ahmed T. Farrag, Walaa H. Elsayed, Mohsen M. El-Sayyad, William S. Marras

Biomechanical patterns of text message distraction
Ergonomics, Volume 58, Issue 10, 2015, Pages 1690-1700
Peter Le, Jaejin Hwang, Sarah Grawe, Jing Li, Alison Snyder, Christina Lee, William S. Marras

Low back functional health status of patient handlers
Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, Volume 25, Issue 2, 2015, Pages 296-302
Sue A. Ferguson, Dustin R. Grooms, James A. Onate, Safdar N. Khan, William S. Marras

2014

Putting mind and body back together: A human-systems approach to the integration of the physical and cognitive dimensions of task design and operations
Applied Ergonomics, Volume 45, Issue 1, 2014, Pages 55-60
William S. Marras, Peter A. Hancock

Objective classification of vehicle seat discomfort
Ergonomics, Volume 57, Issue 4, 2014, Pages 536-544
Peter Le, Joseph Rose, Gregory G. Knapik, William S. Marras

Are workers who leave a job exposed to similar physical demands as workers who develop clinically meaningful declines in low-back function?
Human Factors, Volume 56, Issue 1, 2014, Pages 58-72
Sue A. Ferguson, William S. Marras, Steven A. Lavender, Riley E. Splittstoesser, Gang Yang

Cumulative spine loading and clinically meaningful declines in low-back function
Human Factors, Volume 56, Issue 1, 2014, Pages 29-43
William S. Marras, Sue A. Ferguson, Steven A. Lavender, Riley E. Splittstoesser, Gang Yang

2013

Carrying and spine loading
Ergonomics, Volume 56, Issue 11, Pages 1722-1732
Joseph D. Rose, Ehud Mendel, William S. Marras

Shoulder muscle fatigue during repetitive tasks as measured by electromyography and near-infrared spectroscopy
Human Factors, Volume 55, Issue 6, 2013, Pages 1077-1087
Sue A. Ferguson, W. Gary Allread, Peter Le, Joseph Rose, William S. Marras

An EMG-assisted model calibration technique that does not require MVCs
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, Volume 23, Issue 3, 2013, Pages 608-613
Jonathan S. Dufour, William S. Marras, Gregory G. Knapik

Spine kinematics predict symptom and lost time recurrence: How much recovery is enough?
Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, Volume 23, Issue 3, 2013, Pages 329-335
Sue A. Ferguson, William S. Marras

Comparisons of tibial accelerations when walking on a wood composite vs. a concrete mezzanine surface
Applied Ergonomics, Volume 44, 2013, Pages 824-827
Steven A. Lavender, Jay P. Mehta, W. Gary Allread

2012

Use of a personalized hybrid biomechanical model to assess change in lumbar spine function with a TDR compared to an intact spine
European Spine Journal,Volume 21,(S.5), Pages S641-S652
Gregory G. Knapik, Ehud Mendel, William S. Marras

Immune responses to low back pain risk factors
Work, Volume 41, Pages 6016-6023
Riley E. Splittstoesser, William S. Marras, Thomas M. Best

The complex spine: The multi-dimensional system of causal pathways for low back disorders
Human Factors, Volume 54, Issue 6, Pages 881-889
William S. Marras

Association between spinal loads and the psychophysical determination of maximum acceptable force during pushing tasks
Ergonomics, Volume 55, Issue 9, Pages 1104-1114
Peter Le, Jonathan S. Dufour, Heath Monat, Joseph Rose, Zach Huber, Emma Alder, Radin Zaid Radin Umar, Bryan Hennessey, Mohini Dutt, William S. Marras

Developing physical exposure-based back injury risk models applicable to manual handling jobs in distribution centers
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Volume 9, Pages 450-459
Steven A. Lavender, William S. Marras, Sue A. Ferguson, Riley E. Splittstoesser, Gang Yang

A strategy for human factors/ergonomics: Developing the discipline and profession
Ergonomics, Volume 55, Issue 4, Pages 377-395
Jan Dul, Ralph Bruder, Peter Buckle, Pascale Carayon, Pierre Falzon, William S. Marras, John R. Wilson, Bas van der Boelen

Biomechanical, psychosocial and individual risk factors predicting low back functional impairment among furniture distribution employees
Clinical Biomechanics, Volume 27, Pages 117-123
Sue A. Ferguson, W. Gary Allread, Deborah L. Burr, Catherine Heaney, William S. Marras

A nonlinear contact algorithm predicting facet joint contribution in the lumbar spine of a specific person
Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 303-317
Kimberly A. Vandlen, William S. Marras, Daniel Mendelsohn

Musculoskeletal disorder risk during automotive assembly: Current vs. seated
Applied Ergonomics, Volume 43, Pages 671-678
Sue A. Ferguson, William S. Marras, W. Gary Allread, Gregory G. Knapik, Riley E. Splittstoesser

Non-specific low back pain
The Lancet, Volume 378, Issue 9829, Page 1874
J.H. Van Dieen, P.P.F.M. Kuijer, A. Burdof, William S. Marras, M.A. Adams

Tolerance of the lumbar spine to shear: A review and recommended exposure limits
Clinical Biomechanics, Volume 27, Pages 973-978
Sean Gallagher, William S. Marras

Response to the commentary 'A question of our marketing or our preconceptions'
Ergonomics, Volume 55, Issue 12, Pages 1618-1620
Jan Dul, Ralph Bruder, Peter Buckle, Pascale Caryon, Pierre Falzon, William S. Marras, John R. Wilson, Bas Van der Boelen

2011

The biochemical response to biomechanical tissue loading on the low back during physical work exposure
Clinical Biomechanics, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 431-437
Gang Yang, William S. Marras, Thomas M. Best

Musculoskeletal disorder risk as a function of vehicle rotation angle during assembly tasks
Applied Ergonomics, Volume 42, Pages 699-710
Sue A. Ferguson, William S. Marras, W. Gary Allread, Gregory G. Knapik, Kimberly A. Vandlen, Riley E. Splittstoesser, Gang Yang

Effects of postural and visual stressors on myofascial trigger point development and motor unit rotation during computer work
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, Volume 21, Issues 41-48
Jeffrey A. Hoyle, William S. Marras, James E. Sheedy, Dennis E. Hart

2010

Instrumentation for measuring dynamic spinal load moment exposures in the workplace
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 1-9
William S. Marras, Steven A. Lavender, Sue A.Ferguson, Riley E. Splittstoesser, Gang Yang, Pete Schabo

Quantitative biomechanical workplace exposure measures: Distribution centers
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, Volume 20, Issue 5, Pages 813-822
William S. Marras, Seteven A. Lavender, Sue A. Ferguson, Riley E. Splittstoesser, Gang Yang.

Quantitative dynamic measures of physical exposure: Predict low back functional impairment
Spine, Volume 35, Issue 8, Pages 914-923
William S. Marras, Steven A. Lavender, Sue A. Ferguson, Riley E. Splittstoesser, Gang Yang

Investigating reduced bag weight as an effective risk mediator for mason tenders
Applied Ergonomics, Volume 41, Issue 6, Pages 822-831
Kermit G. Davis, Susan E. Kotowski, James Albers, William S. Marras

2009

National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) future directions in occupational musculoskeletal disorder health research
Applied Ergonomics, Volume 40, Pages 15-22
William S. Marras, Robert G. Cutlip, Susan E. Burt, Thomas R. Waters

Lumbar spine forces during manoeuvring of ceiling-based and floor-based patient transfer devices
Ergonomics, Volume 52, Issue 3, Pages 384-397
William S. Marras, Gregory G.Knapik, Sue A. Ferguson

Loading along the lumbar spine as influenced by speed, control, load magnitude, and handle height during pushing
Clinical Biomechanics, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 155-163
William S. Marras, Gregory G. Knapik, Sue A. Ferguson

Point of view
Spine, Volume 34, Issue 4, Pages 322
William S. Marras

Quantification of a meaningful change in low back functional impairment
Spine, Volume 34, Issue 19, Pages 2060-2065
Sue A. Ferguson, William S. Marras, Deborah L. Burr, Stephen Woods, Ehud Mendel, Pumendu Gupta

Spine loading at different lumbar levels during pushing and pulling
Ergonomics, Volume 52, Issue 1, Pages 60-70
Gregory G, Knapik, William S. Marras

2008

A critical review of a pivotal scientific contribution: Liles and associates 24 years later
Human Factors, Volume 50, Issue 3, Pages 393-396
William S. Marras

2007

Low back pain and the workplace
JAMA, Volume 298, Issue 4, Pages 403-404
Arun Garg, Fred Gerr, Jeffrey N. Katz, William S. Marras, Barbara Silverstein

A comparison of fatigue failure responses of old versus middle-aged lumbar motion segments in simulated flexed lifting
Spine, Volume 32, Issue 17, Pages 1832-1839
Sean Gallagher, William S. Marras, Alan S. Litsky, Deborah Burr, John Landoll, Velimir Matkovic

Identification of key variables using fuzzy average with fuzzy cluster distribution
IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems, Volume 15, Issue 4, Pages 673-685
Yanfeng Hou, Jacek M. Zurada, Waldemar Karwowski, William S. Marras, Kermit Davis.

The influence of lift frequency, lift duration, and work experience on discomfort reporting
Ergonomics, Volume 50, Issue 3, Pages 396-409
Julia Parakkat,Gang Yang, Anne-Marie Chany, Deborah Burr, William S. Marras

Spinal loading during manual materials handling in a kneeling posture
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, Volume 17, Pages 25-34
Riley E. Splittstoesser, Gang Yang, Greg G Knapik, David R. Trippany, Jeff A. Hoyle, Parul Lahoti, Sahika Vatan Korkmaz, Carolyn M. Sommerich, Steven A. Lavender, William S. Marras.

The effects of work experience, lift frequency and exposure duration on low back muscle oxygenation
Clinical Biomechanics, Volume 22, Pages 21-27
Gang Yang, Anne-Marie Chany, Julia Parakkat, Deborah Burr, William S. Marras

Estimation of the dynamic spinal forces using a recurrent fuzzy neural network
IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybrenetics – Part B: Cybrenetics, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 100-109
Yanfeng Hou, Jacek M. Zurada, Waldemar Karwowski, William S. Marras, Kermit Davis.

Modification of an EMG-assisted biomechanical model for pushing and pulling
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Volume, 37, Issues 11-12, Pages 825-831
Erich W. Theado, Gregory G. Knapik, William S. Marras

The effect of phone design on upper extremity discomfort and muscle fatigue
Human Factors, Volume 49, Issue 4, Pages 602-618
Anne-Marie Chany, William S. Marras, Deborah L. Burr

Low back pain recurrence in occupational environments
Spine,Volume 32, Issue 21, Pages 2387-2397
William S. Marras, Sue A. Ferguson, Deborah Burr, Pete Schabo, Anthony Maronitis

2006

Myofascial trigger point development from visual and postural stressors during computer work
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, Volume 16, Pages 115-124
Delia E. Treaster, William S. Marras, Deborah Burr, James E. Sheedy, Dennis E. Hart.

Baggage handling in an airplane cargo hold: An ergonomic intervention study
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Volume 36, Pages 301-312
Sahika Vatan Korkmaz, Jeff A. Hoyle, Gregory G, Knapik, Riley E. Splittstoesser, Gang Yang, David R. Trippany, Parul Lahoti, Carolyn M. Sommerich, Steven A. Lavender, William S. Marras

Prevention of work related musculoskeletal disorders
Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 50th Annual Meeting
Sue A. Ferguson, Barbara Silverstein, Martin Cherniack, Arun Garg, Steven A. Lavender

A fuzzy relational rule network modeling of electromyographical activity of trunk muscles in manual lifting based on trunk angles, moments, pelvic tilt and rotation angles
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Volume 36, Issue 10, Pages 847-859
Waldemar Karwowski, Adam Gaweda., William S. Marras, Kermit G. Davis, Jozef Zurada, David Rodrick.

Does personality affect the risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders?
Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 149-167
W. Gary Allread, William S. Marras

An exploratory study of loading and morphometric factors associated with specific failure modes in fatigue testing of lumbar motion segments
Clinical Biomechanics, Volume 21, Pages 228-234
Sean Gallagher, William S. Marras, Alan S. Litsky, Deborah L. Burr

Spine loading as a function of lift frequency, exposure duration, and work experience
Clinical Biomechanics, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 345-352
William S. Marras, Julia Parakkat, Anne-Marie Chany, Gang Yang, Deborah L. Burr, Steven A. Lavender

Changes in spine loading patterns throughout the workday as a function of experience, lift frequency and personality
The Spine Journal, Volume 6, Pages 296-305
Anne-Marie Chany, Julia Parakkat, Gang Yang, Deborah L. Burr, William S. Marras

2005

The effect of ergonomic interventions in healthcare facilities on musculoskeletal disorders
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Volume 48, Pages 338-347
Kaori Fujishiro, Jean L. Weaver, Catherine A. Heaney, Christopher A. Hamrick, William S. Marras

The prediction of lumbar spine geometry: Method development and validation
Clinical Biomechanics, Volume 20, Pages 455-464
Naira Campbell-Kyureghyan, William S. Marras, Deborah Burr, Michael J. Jorgensen

Load spatial pathway and spine loading: How does lift origin and destination impact low back response?

Ergonomics, Volume 48, Issue 8, Pages 1031-1046
Kermit G. Davis, William S. Marras

The future of research in understanding and controlling work-related low back disorders
Ergonomics, Volume 48, Issue 5, Pages 464-477
William S. Marras

Functional impairment as a predictor of spine loading
Spine, Volume 30, Issue 7, Pages 729-737
William S. Marras, Sue. A. Ferguson, Deborah Burr, Kermit G. Davis, Pumendu Gupta

Torso flexion loads and the fatigue failure of human lumbrosacral motion segments
Spine, Volume 30, Issue 20, Pages 2265-2273
Sean Gallagher, William S. Marras, Alan S. Litsky, Deborah Burr

Differences among outcome measures in occupational low back pain
Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, Volume 15, Issue 3, Pages 329-341
Sue A. Ferugson, William S. Marras, Deborah L. Burr

2004

Differences in motor recruitment and resulting kinematics between low back pain patients and asymptomatic participants during lifting exertions
Clinical Biomechanics, Volume 19, Issue 10, Pages 992-999
Sue A. Ferguson, William S. Marras, Deborah L. Burr, Kermit G. Davis, Purenendu Gupta

Revised protocol for the kinematic assessment of impairment
The Spine Journal, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 163-169
Sue A. Ferugson, William S. Marras

Spine loading in patients with low back pain during asymmetric lifting exertions
The Spine Journal, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 64-75
William S. Marras, Sue A. Ferguson, Deborah Burr, Kermit G. Davis, Purnendu Gupta

Physical demands and low-back injury risk among children and adolescents working on farms
Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 257-274
W. Gary Allread, Jay R. Wilkins, Tom Waters, William S. Marras.

Workplace design guidelines for asymptomatic vs. low back injured workers
Applied Ergonomics, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 85-95.
Sue A. Ferguson, William S. Marras, Deborah L. Burr

The influence of individual low back health status on workplace trunk kinematics and risk of low back disorder
Ergonomics, Volume 47, Issue 11, Pages 1226-1237
Sue A. Ferguson, William S. Marras, Deborah L. Burr.

State-of-the art research perspectives on musculoskeletal disorder causation and control: the need for an integrated understanding of risk
Journal of Electromyographys and Kinesiology, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 1-5
William S. Marras

Sagittal plane moment arms of the female lumbar region rectus abdominis in an upright neutral torso posture
Clinical Biomechanics, Volume 20, Issue 3, Pages 242-246
Michael J. Jorgensen, William S. Marras, Francis W. Smith, Malcom H. Pope

Classification of jobs with risk of low back disorders by applying data mining techniques
Occupational Ergonomics, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 291-305
Jozef Zurada, Waldemar Karwowski, William S. Marras

2003

Effect of torso flexion on the lumbar torso extensor muscle sagittal plane moment arms
The Spine Journal, Volume 3, Issue 5, Pages 363-369
Michael J. Jorgensen, William S. Marras, Purnendu Gupta, Thomas R. Waters

Cross-sectional area of the lumbar back muscles as a function of torso flexion
Clinical Biomechanics, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 280-286
Michael J. Jorgensen, William S. Marras, Purnendu Gupta, Thomas R. Waters

Validity and reliability of sincerity test for dynamic trunk motions
Disability and Rehabilitation, Volume 25, Issues 4-5, Pages 236-241
Sue A. Ferguson, Gallagher, S., William S. Marras

A neuro-fuzzy model for estimating electromyographical activity of trunk muscles due to manual lifting
Ergonomics, Volume 46, Issues 1-3, Pages 285-309
Wookgee Lee, Waldemar Karwowski, William S. Marras, David Rodrick

The case for cumulative trauma in low back disorders
The Spine Journal, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 177-179
William S. Marras

Gender influences on spine loads during complex lifting
The Spine Journal, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 93-99
William S. Marras, Kermit G. Davis, Michael J. Jorgensen

Partitioning the contribution role of biomechanical, psychosocial, and individual risk factors in the development of spine loads
The Spine Journal, Volume 3, Issue 5, Pages 331-338
Kermit G. Davis, William S. Marras.

2002

Spinal loading when lifting from industrial storage bins
Ergonomics, Volume 45, Issue 6, Pages 399-414
Sue A. Ferguson, Gaudes-MacLaren, L.L., William S. Marras, Thomas R. Waters, Kermit G. Davis

Spine loading as a function of gender
Spine, Volume 27, Issue 22, Pages 2514-2520
William S. Marras, Kermit G. Davis, Michael J. Jorgensen

Grip force and muscle activity differences due to glove type
AIHA Journal, Volume 63, Issue 3, Pages 269-274
Kimberly Kovacs, Riley Splittstoesser, Anthony Maronitis, William S. Marras

The impact of mental processing and pacing on spine loading
Volvo Award for Low Back Pain Research, Spine, Volume 27, Issue 23, Pages 2645-2653
Kermit P. Davis, William S. Marras, Catherine A. Heaney, Thomas R. Waters, Pumendu Gupta.

Effects of posture on dynamic back loading during a cable lifting task
Ergonomics, Volume 45, Issue 5, Pages 380-398
Sean Gallagher, William S. Marras, Kermit G. Davis, Kimberly Kovacs.

Kinematic contribution and synchronization of the trunk, hip, and knee during free-dynamic lifting
Occupational Ergonomics, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 99-103
Kermit G. Davis, Riley E. Splittstoesser, William S. Marras

A study of female Mexican anthropometric measures useful for workstation design in light manufacturing facilities
AIHA Journal, Volume 63, Issue 3, Pages 300-304
Steven A. Lavender, William S. Marras, Sabol, R.J.

Biomechanical aspects of work-related musculoskeletal disorders
Theoretical Issues in Ergonomic Science, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 153-217
Robert G. Radwin, William S. Marras, Steven A. Lavender

2001

Female and male trunk geometry: Size and prediction of the spine loading trunk muscles derived from MRI
Clinical Biomechanics, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 38-46
William S. Marras, Michael J. Jorgensen, Kevin P. Granata, J. William Wiand

Quantification of trunk motion in response to complex platform perturbations while holding weights in an upright posture
Biomedical Engineering, Applications, Basis and Communications, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 33-46
Mohamad Parnianpour, Kaushik Ghosh, Kamran Barin, William S. Marras

Spine biomechanics, government regulation, and prevention of occupational low back pain
The Spine Journal, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 163-165
William S. Marras

Spine loading characteristics of patients with low back pain compared with asymptomatic individuals
Spine, Volume 26, Issue 23, Pages 2566-2574
William S. Marras, Kermit G. Davis, Sue A. Ferguson, Benjamin R. Lucas, Purnendu Gupta

Predicting recovery using continuous low back pain outcome measures
The Spine Journal, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 57-65
Sue A. Ferguson, Purnendu Gupta, William S. Marras, Catherine Heaney

Localized oxygen use of healthy and low back pain individuals during controlled trunk movements
Journal of Spinal Disorders, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 150-158
Kimberly M. Kovacs, William S. Marras, Alan S. Litsky, Purnendu Gupta, Sue A. Ferguson

A non-MVC EMG normalization technique for the trunk musculature: Part 1. Method development
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 1-9
William S. Marras, Kermit G. Davis

A non-MVC EMG normalization technique for the trunk musculature: Part 2. Validation and use to predict spinal loads
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 11-18
William S. Marras, Kermit G. Davis, Anthony B. Maronitis

MRI-derived moment-arms of the female and male spine loading muscles
Clinical Biomechanics, Volume 16, Issue 3, Pages 182-193
Michael J. Jorgensen, WIlliam S. Marras, Kevin P. Granata, J. William Wiand

2000

The influence of psychosocial stress, gender, and personality on mechanical loading of the lumbar spine
Spine, Volume 25, Issue 23, Pages 3045-3054
William S. Marras, Kermit G. Davis, Catherine A. Heaney, Anthony B. Maronitis, W.Gary Allread

Finger motion, wrist motion, and tendon travel as a function of keyboard angles
Clinical Biomechanics, Volume 15, Issue 7, Pages 489-498
John E. Nelson, Delia E. Treaster, William S. Marras

An assessment of alternate keyboards using finger motion, wrist motion, and tendon travel
Clinical Biomechanics, Volume, 15, Issue 7, Pages 499-503
Delia E. Treaster, William S. Marras

Cost-benefit of muscle cocontraction in protecting against spinal instability
Spine, Volume 25, Issue 11, Pages 1398-1404
Kevin P. Granata, William S. Marras

Measuring trunk motions in industry: variability due to task factors, individual differences, and the amount of data collected
Ergonomics, Volume 43, Issue 6, Pages 691-701
W. Gary Allread, William S. Marras, Deborah L. Burr 

Occupational low back disorder causation and control
Ergonomics, Volume 43, Issue 7, Pages 880-902
William S. Marras

Longitudinal quantitative measures of the natural course of low back pain recovery
Spine, Volume 25, Issue 15, Pages 1950-1956
Sue A. Ferguson, William S. Marras, Purnendu Gupta.

The effects of motion on trunk biomechanics
Clinical Biomechanics, Volume 15, Issue 10, Pages 703-717
Kermit G. Davis, William S. Marras

Assessment of the relationship between box weight and trunk kinematics: Does a reduction in box weight necessarily correspond to a decrease in spinal poading?
Human Factors, Volume 42, Issue 2, Pages 195-208
Kermit G. Davis, William S. Marras

An investigation of perceived exertion via whole body exertion and direct muscle force indicators during the determination of the maximum acceptable weight of lift
Ergonomics, Volume 43, Issue 2, Pages 143-159
Kermit G. Davis, Michael J. Jorgensen, William S. Marras

Prospective validation of a low-back disorder risk model and assessment of ergonomic interventions associated with manual materials handling tasks
Ergonomics, Volume 43, Issue 11, Pages 1866-1886
William S. Marras, Allread, W.G., Deborah L. Burr, Fadi A. Fathallah

Effect of foot movement and an elastic lumbar back support on spinal loading during free-dynamic symmetric and asymmetric lifting exertions
Ergonomics, Volume 43, Issue 5, Pages 653-668
William S. Marras, Michael J. Jorgensen, Kermit G. Davis

The effect of lumbar back support tension on trunk muscle activity
Clinical Biomechanics, Volume 15, Issue 4, Pages 292-294
Michael J. Jorgensen, William S. Marras

Impairment magnification during dynamic trunk motions
Spine, Volume 25, Issue 5, Pages 587-595
William S. Marras, Karen E. K. Lewis, Sue A. Ferguson, Mohamad Parnianpour

1999

A comprehensive analysis of low-back disorder risk and spinal loading during the transferring and repositioning of patients using different techniques
Ergonomics, Volume 42, Issue 7, Pages 904-926
William S. Marras, Kermit G. Davis, Bryan C. Kirking, Bertsche P.K.

The quantification of low back disorder using motion measures: methodology and validation
Spine, Volume 24, Issue 20, Pages 2091-2100
William S. Marras, Sue A. Ferguson, Purnendu Gupta, Smarajit Bose, Mohamad Parnianpour, Jung-Yong Kim, Robert R. Crowell

The effectiveness of commonly used lifting assessment methods to identify industrial jobs associated with elevated risk of low-back disorders
Ergonomics, Volume 42, Issue 1, Pages 229-245
William S. Marras, Fine, L.J., Sue A. Ferguson, Waters, T.R.

Significance of biomechanical and physiological variables during the determination of maximum acceptable weight of lift
Ergonomics, Volume 42, Issue 9, Pages 1216-1232
Michael J. Jorgensen, Kermit G. Davis, Bryan C. Kirking, Karen E.K. Lewis, William S. Marras

Variation in spinal load and trunk dynamics during repeated lifting exertions
Clinical Biomechanics, Volume 14, Issue 6, Pages 367-375
Kevin P. Granata, William S. Marras, Kermit G. Davis

Relation between spinal load factors and the high-risk probability of occupational low-back disorder
Ergonomics, Volume 42, Issue 9, Pages 1187-1199
Kevin P. Granata, William S. Marras

Regression models for predicting peak and continuous three-dimensional spinal loads during symmetric and asymmetric lifting tasks
Human Factors, Volume 41, Issue 3, Pages 373-388
Fadi A. Fathallah, William S. Marras, Mohamad Parnianpour

Variability in spine loading model performance
Clinical Biomechanics, Volume 14, Issue 8, Pages 505-514
William S. Marras, Kevin P. Granata, Kermit G. Davis

The effects of box features on spine loading during warehouse order selecting
Ergonomics, Volume 42, Issue 7, Pages 980-996
William S. Marras, Kevin P. Granata, Kermit G. Davis, Allread, W.G., Michael J. Jorgensen

Spine loading and trunk kinematics during team lifting
Ergonomics, Volume 42, Issue 10, Pages 1258-1273
William S. Marras, Kevin P. Granata, Kermit G. Davis, B.C. Kirking

1998

Spade design, lumbar motions, risk of low-back injury and digging posture
Occupational Ergonomics, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 157-172
Robert S. Bridger, Patrick J. Sparto, William S. Marras

Reduction of spinal loads through the use of handles
Ergonomics, Volume 41, Issue 8, Pages 1155-1168
Kermit G. Davis, William S. Marras, Thomas R. Waters

Trunk muscle activities during asymmetric twisting motions
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 247-256
William S. Marras, Kermit G. Davis, Kevin P. Granata

The effect of electromyogram-force relationships and method of gain estimation on the predictions of an electromyogram-driven model of spinal loading
Spine, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 423-429
Patrick J. Sparto, Mohamad Parnianpour, William S. Marras, Kevin P. Granata, Tom E. Reinsel, Sheldon R. Simon

A method for developing biomechanical profiles of hand-intensive tasks
Clinical Biomechanics, Volume 13, Pages 261-271
Sommerich, C.M., William S. Marras, Mohamad Parnianpour

An assessment of complex spinal loads during dynamic lifting tasks
Spine, Volume 23, Issue  6, Pages 706-716
Fadi A. Fathallah, William S. Marras, Mohamad Parnianpour

The role of complex, simultaneous trunk motions in the risk of occupationally-related low back disorders
Spine, Volume 23, Issue 9, Pages 1035-1042
Fadi A. Fathallah, William S. Marras, Mohamad Parnianpour

Spine loading during asymmetric lifting using one vs. two hands
Ergonomics, Volume 41, Issue 6, Pages 817-834
William S. Marras, Kermit G. Davis

Evaluation of spinal loading during lowering and lifting
Clinical Biomechanics, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 141-152
Kermit G. Davis, William S. Marras, Thomas R. Waters

1997

Biomechanical assessment of lifting dynamics, muscle activity and spinal loads while using three different styles of lifting belt
Clinical Biomechanics, Volume 12, Issue2, Pages 107-115
William S. Marras, Kermit G. Davis, Bryan C. Kirking, Kevin P. Granata

A neural network-based system for classification of industrial jobs with respect to risk of low back disorders due to workplace design
Applied Ergonomics, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 49-58
Jozef Zurada, Waldemar Karwowski, William S. Marras

Spine loading during trunk lateral bending motions
Journal of Biomechanics, Volume 30, Issue 7, Pages 697-703
William S. Marras, Kevin P. Granata

The development of an EMG-assisted model to assess spine loading during whole-body free-dynamic lifting
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 259-268
William S. Marras, Kevin P. Granata

A method for measuring external spinal loads during unconstrained free-dynamic lifting
Journal of Biomechanics, Volume 30, Issue 9, Pages 975-978
Fadi A. Fathallah, William S. Marras, Mohamad Parnianpour, Kevin P. Granata

A literature review of low back disorder surveillance measures and risk factors
Clinical Biomechanics, Volume, 12, Issue 4, Pages 211-226
Sue A. Ferguson, William S. Marras

Spine loading and probability of low back disorder risk as a function of box location on a pallet
International Journal of Human Factors in Manufacturing, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 323-336
William S. Marras, Kevin P. Granata, Kermit G. Davis, W. Gary Allread, Michael J. Jorgensen

Influence of lift moment in determining MAWL
Human Factors, Volume 39, Issue 2, Pages 312-322
Kermit G. Davis, Bryan C. Kirking, Laura L. Gaudes, Jaehwan Yang, William S. Marras

Neuromuscular trunk performance and spinal loading during a fatiguing isometric trunk extension with varying torque requirements
Journal of Spinal Disorders, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 145-156
Patrick J. Sparto, Mohamad Parnianpour, William S. Marras, Kevin P. Granata, Tom E. Reinsel, Sheldon R. Simon

Changes in trunk dynamics and spine loading during repeated trunk exertions
Spine, Volume 22, Issue 21, Pages 2564-2570
William S. Marras, Kevin P. Granata

An ergonomic comparison of industrial spray paint guns
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Volume 19, Pages 425-435
Chi-Chang Lee, J. Eric Nelson, Kermit G. Davis, William S. Marras

The effect of complex dynamic lifting and lowering characteristics on trunk muscles recruitment
Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 121-138
Fadi A. Fathallah, William S. Marras, Mohamad Parnianpour

Dynamic low back functional motion capacity evaluation
Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 203-214
Sue A. Ferguson, William S. Marras, Crowell, R.R.

1996

Quantitative assessment of the control capability of the trunk muscles during oscillatory bending motion under a new experimental protocol
Clinical Biomechanics, Volume 11, Issue 7, Pages 385-391
Kim, J.Y, Mohamad Parnianpour, William S. Marras

Trunk kinematics of one-handed lifting and effects of asymmetry and load weight
Ergonomics, Volume 39, Issue 2, Pages 322-334
W. Gary Allread, William S. Marras, Mohamad Parnianpour

A method for measuring external loads during dynamic lifting exertions
Journal of Biomechanics, Volume 29, Issue 9, Pages 1219-1222
Kevin P. Granata, William S. Marras, Fadi A. Fathallah

Observations on the relationship between key strike force and typing speed
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Volume 57, Pages 1109-1114
Carolyn M. Sommerich, William S. Marras, Mohamad Parnianpour

A quantitative description of typing biomechanics
Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 33-55
Carolyn M. Sommerich, William S. Marras, Mohamad Parnianpour

Intra-abdominal pressure during trunk extension motions
Clinical Biomechanics, Volume 11, Issue 5, Pages 267-274
Fadi A. Fathallah, William S. Marras, Wright, L.P.

1995

Quantification of wrist motions during scanning
Human Factor, Volume 37, Issue 2, Pages 412-423
William S. Marras, Richard W. Marklin, Gerald J. Greenspan, Katherine R. Lehman

The influence of trunk muscle coactivity upon dynamic spinal loads
Spine, Volume 20, Issue 8, Pages 913-919
Kevin P. Granata, William S. Marras

An EMG-assisted model of trunk loading during free-dynamic lifting
Journal of Biomechanics,Volume 28, Issue 11, Pages 1309-1317
Kevin P. Granata, William S. Marras

A biomechanical assessment and model of axial twisting in the thoracolumbar spine
Spine, Volume 20, Issue 13, Pages 1440-1451
William S. Marras, Kevin P. Granata

Biomechanical risk factors for occupationally related low back disorders
Ergonomics, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 377-410
William S. Marras, Steven A. Lavender, Sue E. Leurgans, Fadi A. Fathallah, W. Gary Allread, Sue A. Ferguson,Sudhakar L. Rajulu

The classification of anatomic and symptom-based low back disorders using motion measure models
Spine Volume 20, Issue 23, Pages 2531-2546
William S. Marras, Mohamad Parnianpour, Sue A. Ferguson, Jung-Yong Kim, Robert R. Crowell, Smarajit Bose, Sheldon R. Dimon

Diurnal variation in trunk kinematics during a typical work shift
Journal of Spinal Disorders, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 20-25
Fadi A. Fathallah, William S. Marras, Patrick L. Wright

The effects of a temporal warning signal on the biomechanical preparations for sudden loading
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 45-56 
Steven A. Lavender, William S. Marras

1994

The effect of task asymmetry, age and gender on dynamic trunk motion characteristics during repetitive trunk flexion and extension in a large normal population
IEEE Transactions, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 137-146
William S. Marras, Mohamad Parnianpour, Jung-Yong Kim, Sue A. Ferguson, Robert R. Crowell, Sheldon R. Simon

The effects of mats on back and leg fatigue
Applied Ergonomics, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 29-34
Jung-Yong Kim, Stuart-Buttle, C, William S. Marras

Industrial wrist motions and incidence of hand/wrist cumulative trauma disorders
Ergonomics, Volume 37, Issue 9, Pages 1449-1459
Richard W. Schoenmarklin, William S. Marras, Sue E. Leurgans

Dynamic biomechanical modelling of symmetric and asymmetric lifting tasks in restricted postures
Ergonomics, Volume 37, Issue 8, Pages 1289-1310
Sean Gallagher, Christopher A. Hamrick, Arnold C. Love, William S. Marras

The use of turnover rate as a passive surveillance indicator for potential low back disorders
Ergonomics, Volume 37, Issue 6, Pages 971-978
Steven A. Lavender, William S. Marras.

1993

Anthropometry of industrial populations
Ergonomics, Volume 36. Issue 4, Pages 371-378
William S. Marras, Jung-Yong Kim

Occupational risk factors associated with soft tissue disorders of the shoulder: A review of recent investigations in the literature
Ergonomics, Volume 36, Issue 6, Pages 697-717
Carolyn M. Sommerich, James D. McGlothlin, William S. Marras

Wrist motions in industry
Ergonomics, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 341-351
William S. Marras, Richard W. Schoenmarklin

Dynamic capabilities of the wrist joint in industrial workers
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 207-224
Richard W. Schoenmarklin, William S. Marras

The development of response strategies in preparation for sudden loading to the torso
Spine, Volume 18, Issue 14, Pages 2097-2105
Steven A. Lavender, William S. Marras, R. Allen Miller

Electromyographic studies of the lumbar trunk musculature during the generation of low-level trunk acceleration
Journal of Orthopaedic Research, Volume 11, Issue 6, Pages 811-817
William S. Marras, Gary A. Mirka

Quantification and classification of low back disorders based on trunk motion
European Journal of Physical Medicine Vienna Physical Medicine Award 1993, Volume 3, Issue 6, Pages 218-235
William S. Marras, Mohamad Parnianpour, Sue A. Ferguson, Jung-Yong Kim, Robert R. Crowell, Sheldon R. Simon

A stochastic model of trunk muscle coactivation during trunk bending
Spine, Volvo Award for Low Back Pain Research, Volume 18, Issue 11, Pages 1396-1409
Gary A. Mirka, William S. Marras

An EMG-assisted model of loads on the lumbar spine during asymmetric trunk extensions
Journal of Biomechanics, Volume 26, Issue 12, Pages 1429-1438
Kevin P. Granata, William S. Marras

Dynamic measures of low back performance
American Industrial Hygiene Association Ergonomics Guide, ISBN 0-932627-52-8, Stock No. 174-ER-93
William S. Marras, James D. McGlothlin, Donald R. McIntyre, Margareta C. Nordin, Karl H.E. Kroemer

The role of dynamic three-dimensional trunk motion in occupationally-related low back disorders: The effects of workplace factors, trunk position, and trunk motion characteristics on risk of injury
Spine, Volume 18, Issue 5, Pages 617-628
William S. Marras, Steven A. Lavender, Sue E. Leurgans, Sudhakar L. Rajulu, W. Gary Allread, Fadi A. Fathallah, Sue A. Ferguson

1992

Accuracy of a three dimensional lumbar motion monitor for recording dynamic trunk motion characteristic
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 75-87
William S. Marras, Fadi A. Fathallah, Robert J. Miller, Shelby W. Davis, Gary A. Mirka

Temporal patterns of trunk muscle activity throughout a dynamic, asymmetric lifting motion
Human Factors, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 215-230
Carolyn M. Sommerich, William S. Marras

Quantification of back motion during asymmetric lifting
Ergonomics, Volume 35, Issues 7/8, Pages 845-859
Sue A. Ferguson, William S. Marras, Tom R. Waters

A comprehensive evaluation of trunk response to asymmetric trunk motion
Spine, Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 318-326
William S. Marras, Gary A. Mirka

Quantification of velocity coupling during asymmetric lifting
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Volume 10, Pages 207-215.
Sue A. Ferguson, William S. Marras

1991

A model for the objective assessment of automobile restraint systems
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 59-65
William S. Marras

The effects of method of use, tool design, and roof height on trunk muscle activities during underground scaling bar use
Ergonomics, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 221-232
William S. Marras, Steven A. Lavender

A three dimensional motion model of loads on the lumbar spine, part I: Model structure
Human Factors, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 123-137
William S. Marras, Carolyn M. Sommerich

A three dimensional motion model of loads on the lumbar spine, part II: Model validation
Human Factors, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 139-149
William S. Marras, Carolyn M. Sommerich

1990

Lumbar motion response to a constant load velocity lift
Human Factors, Volume 32, Issue 4, Pages 493-501
Gary A. Mirka, William S. Marras

Interdisciplinary perspectives on mechanisms and management of low back pain
Rhode Island Medical Journal, January, Pages 21-31
David A. Ahern, Michael J. Follick, Phillip Lucas, John Parziale, William S. Marras, Dianne L. Wilkin Steven Wolf

Three dimensional dynamic motor performance of the normal trunk
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Volume 6, Issue 3, Pages 211-224
William S. Marras, Sue A. Ferguson, Sheldon R. Simon

An electromyographic analysis of an ergonomic intervention with the jack leg drill
Applied Ergonomics, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 90-100
Steven A. Lavender, William S. Marras

Muscle activities during asymmetric trunk angular accelerations
Journal of Orthopaedic Research, Volume 8, Issue 6, Pages 824-832
William S. Marras, Gary A. Mirka

Industrial electromyography
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 89-93
William S. Marras

On the measurement of human strength
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Volume 6, Pages 199-210
Karl H.E. Kroemer, William S. Marras, James D. McGlothlin, Donald R. McIntyre, Margareta C. Nordin

1989

The effects of preview and task symmetry on trunk muscle response to sudden loading
Human Factors, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 101-115
Steven A. Lavender, Gary A. Mirka, Richard W. Schoenmarklin, Carolyn M. Sommerich., Sudhakar L. Rajulu, William S. Marras

Trunk strength during asymmetric trunk motion
Human Factors, Volume 31, Issue 6, Pages 667-677
William S. Marras, Gary A. Mirka

An experimental analysis of railroad spike maul methods
Human Factors, Volume 31, Issue 3, Pages 335-344
Beth A. Gray, William S. Marras

Effects of handle angle and work orientation on hammering: I. Wrist motion and hammering performance
Human Factors, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 397-411
Richard W. Schoenmarklin, William S. Marras

Effects of handle angle and work orientation on hammering: II. Muscle fatigue and subjective ratings of body discomfort
Human Factors, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 413-420
Richard W. Schoenmarklin, William S. Marras

SIMULIFT: A simulation model of human trunk motion during lifting
Spine, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 5-11
Charles H. Reilly, William S. Marras

1988

Networks of internal trunk loading activities under controlled trunk motion conditions
Spine, Volume 13, Issue 6, Pages 661-667
William S. Marras, Charles H. Reilly

Predictions of forces acting upon the lumbar spine under isometric and isokinetic conditions: A model-experiment comparison
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 19-27
William S. Marras

Risks of hand tool injury in U.S. underground mining from 1978 through 1983, part I: Coal mining
Journal of Safety Research, Volume 19, Pages 71-85
William S. Marras, Thomas G. Bobick, Steven A. Lavender, Thomas H. Rockwell, Robert L. Lundquist

Lifting in stooped and kneeling postures: Effects on lifting capacity, metabolic costs and electromyography of eight trunk muscles
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 65-76
Sean Gallagher, William S. Marras, Thomas G. Bobick

Risks of hand tool injury in U.S. underground mining from 1978 through 1983, part II: Metal-nonmetal mining
Journal of Safety Research, Volume 19, Pages 115-124
William S. Marras, Steven A. Lavender, Thomas G. Bobick, Thomas H. Rockwell, Robert L. Lundquist

1987

Trunk force development during static and dynamic lifts
Human Factors, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 19-29
Wiliiam S. Marras, Sudhakar L. Rajulu, Patricia E. Wongsam

Measurement of seat and back pressure distributions
Human Factors, Volume 29, Issue 5, Pages 563-575
Delia Treaster, William S. Marras

Trunk motion during lifting: temporal relations among loading factors
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 159-167
William S. Marras

Trunk loading and expectation
Ergonomics, Volume 30, Issue 3, Pages 551-562
Marras, W.S., Sudhakar L. Rajulu, Steve A. Lavender

Quantitative trunk muscle electromyography during lifting at different speeds
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 219-229
Jung-Yong Kim, William S. Marras.

1986

Trunk motion during lifting: The relative cost
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 103-113
William S. Marras, Patricia E. Wongsam, Sudhakar L. Rajulu 

An experimental evaluation of method and tool effects in spike maul use
Human Factors, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 267-281
William S. Marras, Thomas H. Rockwell

Flexibility and velocity of the normal and impaired lumbar spine
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Volume 67, Pages 213-217
William S. Marras, Patricia E. Wongsam

An evaluation of tool design and method of use of railroad leverage tools on back stress and tool performance
Human Factors, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 303-315
Thomas H. Rockwell, William S. Marras

1985

The force-velocity relation and intra-abdominal pressure during lifting activities
Ergonomics, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 603-613
William S.Marras, Robert L. Joynt, Albert I. King

1984

Measurements of loads on the lumbar spine under isometric and isokinetic conditions
Spine, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 176-188
William S. Marras, Albert I. King, Robert L. Joynt

1981

Evaluation of maximal and submaximal static muscle exertions
Human Factors, Volume 23, Issue 6, Pages 643-654
Karl H.E. Kroemer, William S. Marras

1980

A method to evaluate human factors/ergonomics design variables of distress signals
Human Factors, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 389-400
William S. Marras., Karl H.E. Kroemer

Ergonomics of visual emergency signals
Journal of Applied Ergonomics, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 137-144
Karl H.E. Kroemer, William S. Marras

Towards an objective assessment of the "Maximal Voluntary Contraction" component in routine muscle strength measurements
European Journal of Applied Physiology, Volume 45, Pages 1-9
Karl H.E. Kroemer, William S. Marras